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SPORTS COMMUNICATIONS - 第173回 「クラブライセンス制度」が根付かす経営的戦略

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二宮清純「フットボールの時間」(10、20日更新) : 第173回 「クラブライセンス制度」が根付かす経営的戦略
投稿日時: 2012-11-20 12:00:00

 Jリーグが2013年度から導入する「クラブライセンス制度」をご存知だろうか。
 安定的なクラブ経営を促すため、財務基準としては債務超過や3期連続赤字のクラブにはライセンスが交付されず、Jリーグに参加できない。

 また同制度はJ1とJ2に分かれており、たとえばJ2のクラブが順位的にJ1昇格の要件をみたしたとしても、J1ライセンスを取得できていなければ、翌シーズンも同じカテゴリーで戦わなければならないのだ。

 ちなみにクラブライセンス制度発祥の地はドイツである。
 ブンデスリーガでは01年に、収入以上の支出は認めないという方針を明確にした。その主な目的はクラブ経営の透明性の確保だった。

 これにより無謀な補強は影を潜め、クラブ間の戦力格差も是正された。極端に強いチームや弱いチームが減れば、拮抗したゲームが多くなる。
 こうした改革が実を結び、ブンデスリーガの昨季の平均観客動員数は約4.5万人を記録した。同リーグの観客動員数が欧州5大リーグ(スペイン、イングランド、ドイツ、イタリア、フランス)でトップに立っているのは、改革の果実と言っていいだろう。

 Jリーグがブンデスリーガを手本にしていることは間違いない。「身の丈に合った経営」とは初代Jリーグチェアマン川淵三郎氏がよく口にしたセリフだが、制度化したことで、努力目標から義務になったと言えよう。
 ところで「Jリーグ クラブライセンス交付規則」は、制度の目的をこう謳っている。

(1)日本サッカーのさらなる水準の向上
(2)クラブの経営のさらなる安定化および組織運営体制の充実
(3)JFAおよびJリーグの諸規程のほか、各種法令、諸規則の遵守
(4)安全で充実した機能を備え、サービスの行き届いた観戦環境およびトレーニング環境の整備
(5)シーズンを通じた国内および国際的な競技会の継続性の維持
(6)競技会における、財務上のフェアプレーの監視

 これらの目的を達成するためとして、大河正明クラブライセンスマネージャーは次のように抱負を述べた。
「Jリーグの現状認識として、外部環境面を見るとリーマンショック等々の影響で経済環境が悪化し、入場者数も伸び悩んでいる。さらに代表とJリーグとの露出の差も大きくなっている。
 内部環境面は、J2のいわゆる市民クラブが増大する中で、トップクラブと市民クラブの間の格差が広がっている。こういった認識のもと、(リーグの)停滞縮小を避けていかなければならない。停滞、横ばいの状況から成長サイクルへ向かっていくために、事業的戦略とクラブライセンス制度による経営的戦略を展開していきたい」

 クラブは永続的なものである。未来永劫、その地域に根差すことを前提としている。
 Jリーグがクラブの健全経営にこだわるのは、過去に“過ち”を犯しているからだ。
 1998年秋、Jリーグは激震に見舞われた。横浜フリューゲルスの出資会社である佐藤工業の撤退を受け、フリューゲルスが横浜マリノスに吸収合併されてしまったのである。

 経営が悪化したことで、下のカテゴリーに転落した例はヨーロッパでも珍しくはない。しかし、オーナー企業の都合だけでクラブが合併したという話は寡聞にして知らない。
 ただでさえ、同じ都市、同じ地域を本拠とするクラブはライバル意識が強く、ためにダービーマッチとして盛り上がる。もし経営が悪化したという理由だけで合併に踏み切れば、それこそサポーターが暴動を起こしてもおかしくない。

 ところが、まだサッカー文化の根付いていなかった日本では、白昼堂々とこんな愚行がまかり通ってしまったのだ。

 この時の反省を元に、当時の川淵チェアマンは経営委員会をつくった。その理由を、本人はこう語ったものである。
「今回、経営委員会をつくったのは、身の丈にあった経営をしていないクラブがあまりにも多いということがわかったからです。それまでは内政干渉だと言われてきたのですが、もう、そういうことを言っている場合じゃないでしょう」

 今年はJリーグが誕生して、ちょうど20周年にあたる。フリューゲルスショックのような不幸な出来事はあったものの、地域密着の理念は浸透し、それはプロ野球にまで伝播していった。

 そして、今回のクラブライセンス制度の確立。まだまだ紆余曲折はあると思われるが、長い目でJリーグの今後を見守りたい。

<この原稿は2012年11月13日号の『経済界』に掲載されたものです>


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