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スポーツ全般/ノンジャンル : スポーツ権を明記 底辺拡大にも重点 〜スポーツ基本法〜
投稿日時: 2011-06-09 21:06:09

 日本のスポーツ政策の基本方針を定めたスポーツ基本法案が9日、衆議院本会議にて全会一致で可決し、参議院に送付された。参院でも来週には委員会で審議が行われ、6月中旬には可決、成立する見通しだ。スポーツ界の“憲法”とも言える今回の基本法の制定により、国のスポーツ政策が前進することが期待されている。法案の中身を検証したい。

 これまで日本のスポーツ政策において拠りどころとなっていたのは1961年に制定されたスポーツ振興法だ。東京五輪(1964年)の開催に向けてつくられた振興法は制定より半世紀が経過し、「時代遅れ」との指摘がなされていた。また、「営利のためのスポーツを振興するためのものではない」とプロスポーツは範疇に入っておらず、障害者スポーツに関する記載がないなど、不備も少なくなかった。

 今回の基本法は、その内容を全面的に改定するもの。「スポーツは、世界共通の人類の文化である」との書き出しで始まる前文では、「スポーツを通じて幸福で豊かな生活を営むことは、全ての人々の権利」と明記された。これは78年に採択されたユネスコ(国連教育科学文化機関)の「体育およびスポーツに関する国際憲章」で定めている「スポーツ権」にのっとったものだ。さらには憲法13条で定められた幸福追求権(「生命、自由及び幸福追求に対する国民の権利については、公共の福祉に反しない限り、立法その他の国政の上で、最大限の尊重を必要とする」)にも即しており、全ての人にスポーツをする権利、スポーツを楽しむ権利があることが明確になった。
 
 5章34条からなる法案では、その上で以下の8つの基本理念を定め、国は「スポーツに関する施策を総合的に策定し、及び実施する責務を有する」(第3条)と書かれている。続いてスポーツの推進のため、文部科学大臣がスポーツ基本計画を定めることも義務付けられた。
1.自主的、自立的なスポーツ活動
2.学校、スポーツ団体、家庭、地域の相互連携
3.人々の交流促進、地域間の交流の基盤整備
4.スポーツを行う者の心身の健康の保持増進、安全の確保
5.障害者が自主的かつ積極的にスポーツを行うことができるようにするための配慮
6.競技水準の向上に資する諸施策相互の有機的な連携、効果的な実施
7.国際相互理解の増進、国際平和への寄与
8.スポーツに対する国民の幅広い理解、支援

 この基本法案は自公政権下の09年にも提出されているが、政権交代により、民主党を中心にとりまとめられたことでスポーツの普及、育成により重点が置かれた内容に変わった。第2章の基本的施策では最初に指導者等の養成、スポーツ施設の整備といった項目が並び、スポーツに関する紛争の迅速かつ適正な解決や、科学的研究の推進、スポーツ産業との連係にも触れている。また多様なスポーツ機会を確保するため、地域スポーツクラブの役割を重視。国と地方公共団体が必要な施策を講じることが記された。競技水準の向上については、25条以降に掲げられ、優秀な選手の育成はもちろん、国際大会の招致、ドーピング防止活動についても明記されている。

 もちろん、この基本法はあくまでも今後のスポーツ政策のベースになるものに過ぎず、理念や施策を具現化するのはこれからの作業だ。スポーツ振興法では、同法に規定されていた「スポーツ振興基本計画」が40年近く経った2000年に定められるなどスピード感に欠けていた。前文で「スポーツ立国を実現することは、21世紀の我が国の発展のために不可欠な重要課題である」と書かれている以上、国には基本法にのっとった政策を早急に実現していくことが求められる。

 その意味で、スポーツ関係者から熱望されているのが、「スポーツ庁」の設置だ。今回の法案では「行政のスリム化の方針と反する」との意見もあり、スポーツ庁については附則で触れるかたちに留まった。しかし、現状では学校体育や競技スポーツが文科省、生涯スポーツや障害スポーツが厚生労働省、施設整備が国土交通省と管轄が分かれ、効率が悪い。スポーツ政策のムダ、ムラを排除するためにも、スポーツ庁は必要不可欠だろう。

 加えて民主党案では明記されていた「スポーツ推進協議会」も同様の理由から本文の中には盛り込まれなかった。これはスポーツ選手や指導者、各競技団体や地域スポーツクラブ、学識経験者からなる会で、スポーツ基本計画やスポーツの推進について提言できることになっていた。法案の前文では全ての国民が「スポーツを支える活動に参画することのできる機会が確保されなければならない」となっており、国のスポーツ政策の方向性について意見する場はあってしかるべきだ。

 残念ながらスポーツ界にとってエポックメイキングな出来事とも言える今回の基本法に関する世間の関心は高いとは言えない。それが日本のスポーツに対する意識の現状だ。法案の成立でようやく国家戦略としてスポーツを推進することは定まった。スポーツが多くの人々にとって身近で、日々の生活に彩りを与えるものとして受け入れられるよう、この基本法をゴールではなく、スタートにしなくてはならない。

(石田洋之)


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